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RFID Introduction
Jun 13, 2018

RFID Introduction

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), commonly known as "electronic tag", is a non-contact automatic identification technology. It automatically recognizes target objects and obtains related data through radio frequency signals. The identification work requires no manual intervention and is a wireless version of the bar code. , RFID technology has the advantages of waterproof, anti-magnetic, high temperature resistance, long service life, large reading distance, data on the label can be encrypted, the data storage capacity is greater, the storage information changes freely, and its application will be retail, The logistics and other industries have brought about revolutionary changes.

The basic composition of RFID

The radio frequency tag is physically composed of three parts: tags, antennas, and readers.

Tag: It consists of a coupling element and a chip. Each tag has a unique electronic code. The high-capacity tag has a user write area and is attached to the object to identify the target object.

Reader: A device that reads (sometimes writes) tag information and can be designed to be handheld or stationary;

Antenna: Passes RF signals between tags and readers.

Antenna in the tag and ID chip packaged electronic tag antenna, reader and handheld terminal

RFID features

Data storage: Compared with the traditional form of label, the capacity is larger (1bit-1024bit), the data can be updated at any time, and can be read and written;

Reading and writing speed: compared with the bar code, no line alignment scanning, faster reading and writing, multi-target recognition, motion recognition;

Easy to use: small size, easy to package, can be embedded in the product;

Security: Dedicated chip, unique serial number, difficult to copy;

Durable: no mechanical failure, long life, harsh environment.

How RFID works

The basic working principle of RFID technology is not complicated: the reader sends a radio signal of a specific frequency through the transmitting antenna, and when the electronic tag enters the effective working area, an induced current is generated, so that energy is obtained, the electronic tag is activated, and the electronic tag encodes itself. The information is sent through the built-in RF antenna; the receiving antenna of the reader receives the modulated signal sent from the tag, and is transmitted to the reader signal processing module through the antenna regulator, and the valid information is sent to the background host system after being demodulated and decoded. Relevant processing; The host system recognizes the identity of the tag according to logical operations, performs corresponding processing and control for different settings, and finally issues an instruction signal to control the reader to complete the corresponding reading and writing operations.

RFID classification

According to the availability of power and divided into two kinds of Passive and Active:

Passive Tag:

The Passive sensor itself does not have a power source. Its power source is from the Reader. The Reader emits a frequency that causes the sensor to generate energy and sends the data back to the Reader. The volume is relatively light and small, and has a relatively long life span. The sensing distance is short.

Active Tag: The price is higher. Because the built-in battery, it is larger than the Passive tag, there are years of use, a longer sensing distance.

According to the level of frequency, it can be roughly divided into three categories: LF, HF and UF:

Low Frequency: 100~500KHz The low frequency sensing distance is short and the reading speed is slow. The main frequency is 125KHz and the penetration ability is good.

High Frequency: The 10-15MHz high-frequency sensing distance is slightly longer, and the reading speed is also faster than the lower frequency, mainly based on 13.56MHz.

Ultra High Frequency/Microwave: Between 850~950MHz (UHF) and 2.45GHz, the longest sensing distance, the fastest speed, and poor penetration.

RFID application

As a data carrier, electronic tags can play a role of identification, item tracking, and information collection. In foreign countries, electronic tags have been applied in a wide range of fields. The RFID system composed of electronic tags, readers, antennas and application software is directly connected to the corresponding management information system. Each item can be accurately tracked. This comprehensive information management system can bring many benefits to customers, including real-time data collection, secure data access channels, and offline access to all product information. Wait. In foreign countries, RFID technology has been widely used in many fields such as industrial automation and commercial automation. Applications include

Product anti-counterfeiting

Valuables management

Access Control/Identification

Material/Product Tracking

Personnel item positioning

Transportation and Distribution

Air baggage tracking

Electronic traceability, food traceability

Production line management

Railway Transportation Management System

Warehouse management, intelligent warehouse management

Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS), Clothing Retail Store Export Management

Anti-theft management, unauthorized use management or asset management of valuable instruments and equipment

Vehicles, car parks and gas stations, warehouse facilities management

Passing the bridge fee automatically

Access Control Management in Important and Hazardous Situations

Meetings and Timing - Typical Applications

Animal management, personalized feeding

Automatic identification of CNC machine tools

Product Quantity and Process Control in Flexible Machining System

Surveillance of suspects

Vehicle anti-theft system and car ignition system

Intelligent Library, Rental Product Management

Car theft prevention and keyless door opening system application management